Attempting to successfully straddle the cultural divide: Hopelessness model of bicultural stress, mental health, and caregiver connection for mexican descent adolescents


The present study extends the Hopelessness Model of Depression through: (a) investigating the applicability of bicultural stress as precipitant in this model, (b) expanding mental health outcomes in addition to depression (i.e., life satisfaction), and (c) examining the protective role that male and female caregiver connection may play in disrupting this model for Mexican descent adolescents. With a sample of 524 Mexican descent adolescents (46.9% male, 53.1% female, age range: 14-20; M = 16.23 years; SD = 1.10 years), 2 structural equation models were tested, The first model (Theoretical Model) sought to determine the relationship between bicultural stress, life satisfaction, and depressive symptoms with hopelessness as a mediator. The second model (Protective Factor Model) investigated both male and female caregiver connectedness as potential protective factors in the bicultural stress-mental health relationships. Both models were supported. In the Theoretical Model, hopelessness mediated the relationship between bicultural stress and the mental health variables (i.e., depression and life satisfaction). Additionally, in the Protective Factor Model, female caregiver connection moderated the relationships between bicultural stress and life satisfaction, highlighting that female caregiver connection is a protective factor in the bicultural stress-life satisfaction relationship. Findings will be discussed from a resilience perspective with recommendations of how practitioners can use these findings for mental health prevention and intervention purposes.

Journal of Counseling Psychology